Sewage or liquid waste is expected to be generated from the workers’ quarters. Indiscriminate dumping or improper handling of this waste could cause the project site to be aesthetically unpleasant and result in other possible disease-causing vectors.


Protect water sources from sewage or liquid waste pollution.

Standard Operating Procedures

11.1 Provide toilets with sewage treatment systems such as septic tanks at the site office and workers’ quarters.

Plate 30: Biomass piled up within the project site.

11.2 Use prefabricated septic tanks from polyethylene, glass fibre-reinforced plastic or pre-cast concrete. Get approval on the materials to be used from JPPS and SIRIM/ IKRAM.

Figure 18: Typical diagram for a Septic Tank.

Source: In Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems MS 1228, 1991 (p. 76), SIRIM

Plate 32: Typical Prefabricated Septic Tank for < 600 mm depth.

Source: National Water Services Commission Malaysia

11.3 Inspect and monitor the sewage treatment system regularly at a minimum of once every six (6) months and keep maintenance/desludging records. De-sludging work must be conducted by an appointed contractor licensed under the Local Authorities. Upon enforcement of the Sewerage Services Enactment 2017, the contractor, who is appointed to carry out the operation, maintenance and desludging of sewage treatment system (septic tank and small sewage treatment system), is required to be licensed by JPPS.

Plate 33: Example of desludging work.

11.4 Prohibit direct discharge of untreated sewage into existing waterways or marine waters.

11.5 Locate all facilities equipped with treatment systems at a minimum distance of 30 metres away from the top of the bank (of the nearest river or watercourse) or distance specified in the AEC / MD. Refer to Figure 19.

11.6 Locate the septic tank at:

11.6.1 Area that allows desludging work to be carried out without posing hazards to building occupants, as well as maintenance and desludging operators.

11.6.2 Area not subjected to heavy vehicles, foundations, or other imposed loadings.

11.6.3 Area away from flood prone area.

11.6.4 Area with access for the desludging vehicle.

11.7 No establishment of toilet facilities or sewage treatment systems allowed within the setback or buffer zone areas stipulated in the AEC. Refer to SOPs for Environmental Condition: Control of Site Development.

Figure 19: Illustration showing measurement of horizontal distance between toilet facilities and watercourses.